First of a series of DUMAND workshops advances the concept of neutrino telescopes
At the 1973 International Cosmic Ray Conference, a group of physicists including Frederick Reines, John Learned, Georgy Zatsepin, and Saburo Miyake founded a committee to explore the feasibility of DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector), a Markov-type instrument.
In 1975, they held the first of a now-legendary series of DUMAND workshops that took place regularly over the next decade. Co-led by Learned and Reines, the committee decided the detector was to be placed at a 4,800-meter depth in the Pacific Ocean off the Big Island of Hawaii. It was funded in 1980. However, the short-circuiting of a deployed test string and other circumstances led the US Department of Energy to terminate its support for DUMAND in 1995. Despite its failure as a neutrino detector, the undertaking pioneered many of the techniques used today in IceCube and other neutrino telescopes.